Glossary of Terms

01/05/2015 21:48

1                    Prose Edda is an ancient Norse work of literature. It was written in Iceland in the early 13th century. Together with the Poetic Edda, it comprises the major store of Scandinavian mythology. The work is often assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson around the year 1220.

2                    The Ridgeway is Britain’s oldest road extending from Wiltshire to East Anglia.

3                    No school called Foxham School exists. There is a school in a village named Bloxham that is located close to Banbury.

4                    Wayland’s Smithy is an ancient barrow, dating back to 3500 BC located near to Uffington Castle.

5                    Phoenicians were a people, known for their developed civilization and their navigation abilities. They originated from a region known today as Lebanon and are assumed to be related to one of the oldest societies known, the Sumerians.

6                    Arthur’s Round Table refers to the knights in the legends of Camelot. They were called the Knights of the Round Table, because of a special table that was in Camelot that was round instead of rectangular. This meant that everyone who sat around it was seen as equal.

7                    Uffington White Horse is an ancient monument reputed to date back to 1000 BC. It is the oldest chalk white horse, its figure a very stylistic one and believed by some to be of religious significance.

8                    Avebury is the largest stone circle in Britain and is believed to be in some way related to the more famous nearby Stonehenge.

9                    Temple Covert exists and may be found on the map between Uffington and Avebury.

10                St Michael’s Alignment, believed to be of pagan significance, is a ley line tracing through England. It intersects with another ley line also known to have significance of Michael. If the line is traced from St Michael’s Mount through Mont St Michel all the way to Israel, the line ends in Mt Megiddo also known as Armageddon.

11                The Irminsul was a kind of pillar which is attested to play an important role in Germanic paganism. The oldest chronicle describing an Irminsul refers to it as a tree trunk erected in the open air.

12                Dagon was originally an East Semitic Mesopotamian (AkkadianAssyrianBabylonian) fertility god who evolved into a major Northwest Semitic god, reportedly of grain (as symbol of fertility) and fish and/or fishing (as symbol of multiplying). He was worshipped by the early Amorites and by the inhabitants of the cities of Ebla (modern Tell Mardikh, Syria) and Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra, Syria). He was also a major member, or perhaps head, of the pantheon of the Philistines.

13                The Rollwrights is a stone circle near to Chipping Norton.

14                Dutch Elm was an insect borne disease that destroyed 80% of Elm trees in England during the 1970s.

15                Jericho is a district of Oxford close to the canal. The name derives from the oldest continually occupied city in the world based in what is now known as Israel.

16                Lewis Carroll was a mathematician who lectured at Oxford University. He was famous for having written the book Alice in Wonderland. His real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. The books were inspired from boat trips on the river at Oxford with the daughters of his college master.

17                The Externensteine is a rock formation in Germany associated with paganism.

18                SCB is the Shanghai Commercial Bank, a fictional bank. In actuality, Hong Kong’s finances were long dominated by two banks Hong Kong Bank (now HSBC) and Standard Chartered Bank.

19                The Green Gang was a local gang that controlled the Opium trade into China during the thirties. The gang was led by a ruthless mobster Du Yuesheng.

20                Count Basie was an American jazz pianist and band leader.

21                Fred Astaire was a film-star of the thirties known especially for his dancing.

22                Jardines and Swires were amongst the ‘Hongs’, large commercial enterprises that controlled trade in Hong Kong. Many such companies were involved in the Opium trade in their early days and several are still major players in Chinese trade.

23                Port Meadow is a large expanse of common ground north of Oxford. The meadows act as a natural flood plain during the winter months.

24                William Lucy was an industrialist that established an iron foundry in Jericho. The factory closed in the 1980s and the buildings were converted into luxury flats.

25                Shanghai was a free port. Foreigners were only allowed to live in the concessions that acted as ghetto suburbs to segregate foreigners from the local population.

26                Harbloom is a fictional hotel. In reality, Sassoon House housed the Cathay Hotel and exists to this day as the Fairmont Peace. The hotel owner was the Jew, Victor Sassoon who was related to the war poet.

27                White Russians refers to Russians, often ex-nobles, who were expelled following the Soviet revolution. Shanghai was a favoured destination as no visa was required.

28                The Jazz Bar was a permanent feature of the Fairmont Peace Hotel and survived through the Cultural Revolution to be in existence even today.

29                Andrei Vlasov was a Russian general who had great success in the early part of WWII. After his capture by the Nazis in the Leningrad campaign, he turned sides and later formed the Russian Liberation Army.

30                Willy Donald was a mercurial figure that participated in negotiations to ally the Nationalists with the Communists to fight against Japan who themselves had established a stronghold in northern Manchuria.

31                The Zionist movement was a Jewish worldwide campaign to find a Jewish homeland. Eventually their campaign resulted in the establishment of Israel.

32                Chang Kai Shek was leader of the Chinese Nationalists. He ran China in the period prior to Japanese invasion. His hold on the country was tenuous and mainly backed by Opium warlords. Eventually he was overthrown and forced into exile. His followers created the country now known as Taiwan. His deputy was Zhang.

33                The Panoriental is a fictional hotel. In reality, there exists a hotel on the Kowloon mainland known as the Peninsular. It has been in the hands of an Iraqi Jewish family the Kadoories.

34                The Peak refers to high ground overlooking the harbour of Hong Kong. This property is the most expensive land in the ex-colony and was earlier reserved for senior members of the colony’s hierarchy.

35                Chesterfields is a popular American brand of cigarette.

36                Supertramp was a super group from the 1970s.

37                Tyre was once an island. Reputedly it was an impregnable fortress, only conquered when Alexander the Great famously built a land bridge in his siege. The island was the city headquarters of the Phoenicians and its fall presaged their decline, just as was prophesized in the bible by Ezekiel. The island is now a part of Sour a southern city of Lebanon.

38                Melkarth was the God worshipped in Tyre. He is widely believed to be the forerunner of Hercules.

39                Helen of Troy was reputedly the most beautiful woman ever. She was kidnapped by Paris, whose city of Troy was then put under siege and only defeated by Menelaus the Greek king using the Trojan Horse.

40                Kai-Tak was the old airport of Hong Kong that existed up until the 1990s when it was replaced with Lantau airport. The airport was famous for its precipitous approach that took planes low over Kowloon high rises.

41                Hong Kong is regularly battered by typhoon storms. Each one is named after a woman. In August 1937, the colony suffered from the Great Storm that beached many ships and claimed thousands of lives.

42                Banyan trees proliferate in Hong Kong. Their most prominent feature is that roots spring and hang down from its branches. These later harden and form part of the trunk.

43                Causeway Bay lies to the south of the island. Tai Tam is a wild part of the island that lies between the south and north of the island. Earlier in the colony’s history, this was a refuge of pirates and gangsters. Now the area is a park containing several natural water reservoirs.

44                Dim Sung is a lunch favoured by Chinese. Dishes are served in wicker baskets stacked on top of each other.

45                HKVD are the initials of the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence force set up to protect the colony from Japanese invasion. The force was understaffed and ineffective.

46                A real escape did take place using MTBs. The escaped personnel managed to successfully cross the south lands of China and reached Rangoon to be shipped back home.

47                The Forbidden City was eventually pulled down in the 1990s and replaced with a park.

48                Rangoon now Yangon was the capital of the former British colony of Burma.

49                Mike Calvert was instrumental in popularizing the unorthodox ideas of General Orde Wingate. Calvert frequently led risky attacks from the front, a practice that earned him the nickname "Mad Mike." He was court-martialled for an alleged act of indecency and dismissed from the Army in 1952.

50                Tannhauser refers to a piece of music written by Richard Wagner.

51                Karele is fictional. In real life, Karl Friedrich Otto Wolff was born in Darmstadt, Germany. His father was a district court judge, who called him "Karele", which stayed Karl's nickname until his death in 1984.

52                Kurt Baechler is fictional. In real life, Kurt Andreas Ernst Becher (12 September 1909 – 8 August 1995) was Commissar of all German concentration camps, and Chief of the Economic Department of the SS Command in Hungary during the German occupation in 1944. He is best known for having traded Jewish lives for money during the Holocaust.

53                Hermannsdenkmal is a large statue of the ancient German warrior. The monument has long been associated with right wing movements in Germany.

54                Wewelsburg was the national headquarters of the SS group. The castle was requisitioned by Himmler and had been planned to be developed as a monumental dedication to the Nazi movement. The rooms of the castle were named after the Pagan legends. Gral refers to the Holy Grail.

55                Runes refer to an ancient Norse alphabet. The Nazi movement adopted these in many of their ceremonies. Indeed the SS are not actually ‘s’s, but rather are the so called Sig runes.

56                Karl Maria Willigut was employed by Himmler as a cultural advisor.

57                Reinhard Heydrich was a senior SS officer who was in charge of the Protectorate of Bohemia. He was assassinated while driving in his car in Prague in 1942.

58                Dachau was a concentration camp training centre for Dead Head guards. Often men trained here were later sent to the killing camps in Poland.

59                Dieter Wisliceny was assistant to Adolf Eichmann, one of the principal architects of the Holocaust. Wisliceny was executed in Slovakia in 1948.

60                ‘Arbeit macht Frei’ was a wrought iron sign above the entrance of many Concentration Camps. The words translate as ‘Work sets you free’. The saying was derived from the biblical quote from Apostle John  ‘Die Wahrheit macht frei’ meaning ‘the Truth sets you free’.

61                Kapos were Jews encouraged to lead work teams. They were often rewarded with their life if they were cruel to and ruthless on other inmates.

62                Sauna was the collection point for Jews arriving in the camp. Here they were shaved, disinfected and then assigned striped clothing.

63                Materials Section was the part of the camp where belongings of arriving inmates were sorted and recycled before being sent back to Germany.

64                Gleiwitz was the destination of the death marches. When the camps were closed down in January 1945, the prisoners were marched through the snow on a 60 km trek, killing many of the weakened men and women.

65                Ferdinand Schörner was a General and later Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) in the German Army during World War II. He was one of 27 people to be awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten) and one of the youngest German generals.

66                Tyr = god with one hand and leavings of the wolf and prince of temples. This saying comes from the Icelandic Tiwaz rune.

67                ‘Schlacht an der weissen Birken‘ is a prophecy of German Pagan legends and refers to a great battle in the east. In the story here, we see parallels to the birch trees that proliferate in Poland; the same tree was used to hide the gas chambers in Auschwitz.

68                Ragnarok is the day of judgement in the Pagan tales and has some parallels to the predictions of Revelations in the bible.

69                The Black Sun has always been a central theme of Pagan and Occult worship. The Phoenicians even equated it to another planet that had an elliptical orbit which would wreak destruction on the earth every 10,000 years.

70                Etruscans were an advanced society based in Tuscany who built the twelve city fortresses and presaged Roman society.

71                Himmler, who was the ultimate leader of the SS and German army, did indeed believe that he was the reincarnation of Heinrich der Vogler, one of the earliest German kings. Himmler was captured after the war in disguise as Sargeant Hitzinger. He poisoned himself on discovery in Lüneburg POW camp. He was accompanied by his two aides de camp, Grothmann and Macher.

72                Bifröst  is a burning rainbow bridge that reaches between Midgard (the world) and Asgard, the realm of the gods.

73                I know that I hung on a windy tree nine long nights, wounded with a spear, dedicated to Odin, myself to myself, on that tree of which no man knows from where its roots run.

74                Babylonische Ordern der Obergruppenführer is a fictional society.

75                Columba dove has always been an important symbol of religion. It is most notable as the dove that Noah sent from the Ark to find land. The raven didn’t return. Far earlier than the bible, Sumerian tablets relate the story of the great flood where the survivor Enki uses a dove to establish that the flood is over.

76                The Obergruppenführersaal does exist in Wewelsburg castle and is a circular room with twelve different seats. On the floor is a motive of the Black Sun.

77                Solo Hütte was a mountain complex where Auschwitz guards were allowed to relax. There was a shooting range where local church icons were used for shooting practice.

78                Muselmänner referred to a condition amongst concentration inmates when the victim becomes so weak that they became resigned to their fate. Few recovered from this state.

79                St Vitus mosaic is one of the most significant pieces of mosaic art in Europe. In the centre panel is the figure of Christ surrounded by angels; kneeling beneath them are the figures of six saints of the Czech lands. On the triptych's two side panels are images of heaven and hell. Thirty-one shades of colored glass, plus gilded tesserae, can be found in the approximately one million glass pieces that compose the mosaic.

80                Schörner did indeed desert his command and flew to Austria where he was arrested May 18th by the Americans. He was returned to the Soviets and sent to a Gulag prison. He died in Munich in 1973.

81                Polaris refers to the nuclear submarine fleet that is serviced in Plymouth port.

82                Lanyon’s Quoit is a dolmen in Cornwall .

83                Longstop Hill was the final battle in the North African campaign that defeated Rommel’s desert army.

84                The Cyrene ruins number some of the best examples of Greek architecture. Cyrene lies in a lush valley in the Jebel Akhdar uplands. The city was named after a spring, Kyre, which the Greeks consecrated to Apollo. It was also the seat of the Cyrenaics, a famous school of philosophy in the 3rd century BC, founded by Aristippus, a disciple of Socrates. It was then nicknamed the "Athens of Africa”.

85                The Radcliffe Camera is an iconic round building that forms part of the Bodleian library.

86                Crozier, Woodcot and Temple colleges are fictional, though it is not difficult to work out which is which.

87                ‘Das Geheimnis der Runen’ translates as The Secrets of the Runes and was written by Guido von List.

88                Dakota or Douglas DC3 was a transport plane, frequently used in WWII by American armed forces.

89                Tiffins refers to light afternoon meal, a practice that supplanted afternoon tea in the colonies. The practice originates from India and was a favourite amongst colonialists, often accompanied with a dash of Gin.

90                Avram Meir is a fictional character. The character bears some resemblance to Abba Eban, a brilliant diplomat who went on to become Israel’s ambassador to the United States in the 1950s.

91                Lord Maine is a fictional character. The character bears some resemblance to Lord Moyne who acted as the main negotiator for the British government in the ‘Blood for Goods’ event.

92                Miklos Horthy was Hungarian regent during the war years. In 1944, he tried to change sides to the allies, prompting the Nazi crackdown that in itself led to the initiation of Hungarian transports.

93                Oswald Moseley was an English politician that created an English version of the Nazi party. During WWII he and his Blackshirts were interned in British concentration camps.

94                Sephardic is a clan of Jews that originated from Spanish and Portuguese pogroms in the 15th century. The group has an unusually high representation in prominent personalities of art and commerce.

95                Lanek-Pfizer report is a fictional report. In reality, a report was written by two Jewish escapees from Auschwitz concentration camp which is known as the Vrba-Wetzler. It was the first detailed exposé of Nazi atrocities.

96                Moshe Sharett was secretary of the World Zionist movement. He succeeded David Ben-Gurion as Israel’s second prime minister.

97                Spitfire was the main fighter plane used by the British in WWII.

98                Camp Clinton was an American POW holding Camp in Mississippi in early war years.

99                Bergen Belsen was a concentration camp in northern Germany. The camp was captured by the Allies who then put the camp personnel on trial, leading to their execution which was publicized by posting pictures of their hung bodies.

100            ‘Gehorsam bis in den Tod, so wahr mir Gott helfe’ is the oath of SS soldiers and translates as ‘Obedient until death so help me God.’

101            Bacalao is a cod based dish originally from Portugal.

102            USF is University of South Florida based in Tampa.

103            Partition of Austria took place as in other countries along the Demarcation Line. Austria was split into four zones French, English, American and Russian. Vienna itself was also partitioned. This lasted until 1955 when the country regained its independence.

104            The Society of the Holy Cross is a real society dedicated to influencing the Anglican Church to adopt a more catholic oriented stance. The society's name is abbreviated as SSC from the initials of the society's Latin name, Societas Sanctae Crucis.

105            MAFF stands for Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Farms.

106            The Iron Lady was Margaret Thatcher who was Britain’s prime minister between 1979 and 1990. She was responsible for widespread reform of British society taking it from a socialist driven policy to open market free enterprise.

107            JR Tolkien wrote Lord of Rings which he himself said was heavily influenced by the Prose Edda.

108            Guido von List was an Austrian philosopher who developed a belief known as Armanism which revived many of the Germanic pagan traditions and myths.

109            Surrender of the northern German army took place on Lüneburg Heath on 4th May 1945.

110            The Yalta conference took place in February 1945. The meeting was between the major allies and resulted in the demarcation line that split Europe in two between communist controlled east and American/ British controlled west.

111            There was indeed a mercurial character named Robert Hooke. This man studied at Wadham College and was partly responsible for many of the scientific breakthroughs that took place in this period. He also founded the Royal Society. No known depiction exists of this man who had contributed to vast steps forward in science. This Faustian character has always been surrounded with mystery.

112            National Redoubt refers to a threat by the Nazis to prolong the WWII conflict by retreating into an alpine fortress. In reality, this proved to be a myth of propaganda.

113            SMERSH was the forerunner to the KGB. It was responsible for the execution of many Soviet POWs who were considered traitors by Stalin. In Bleiburg, the British were responsible for handing such prisoners to SMERSH, knowing that they would be executed without trial. Immediately after the war, the organization changed names to the NKVD.

114            A POW camp did exist called Barony Camp in the years shortly after WWII.

115            ‘Und wir warden dich wieder schlagen du kleine Maus’ translates loosely as ‘And we’ll beat you up again, little mouse’.

116            Clement Attlee took over from Winston Churchill as prime minister in a surprise landslide election victory shortly after the end of the war. He introduced widespread socialist reform including the establishment of a National Health Service.

117            North Europe faced an eclipse on 9th July 1945.

118            Karl von Willigut’s grave has the inscription ‚Unser Leben geht dahin wie ein Geschwätz‘ translating as ”we chatter our lives away.”

119            The Craignarget Stone exists and is one of the earliest representations of swastika found on this ancient carved stone. It is believed to be a link evidencing Phoenician travellers visiting Britain in ancient times.

120            St Ninian’s is an ancient place of worship. The church has been carved into the rock on the beach of Port William.